|Veröffentlichungsdatum||15. Juli 1924|
|Eingetragen||3. Aug. 1920|
|Prioritätsdatum||3. Aug. 1920|
|Veröffentlichungsnummer||US 1501550 A, US 1501550A, US-A-1501550, US1501550 A, US1501550A|
|Erfinder||Milton C Baumann|
|Ursprünglich Bevollmächtigter||Dayton Wright Company|
|Zitat exportieren||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenziert von (3), Klassifizierungen (7)|
|Externe Links: USPTO, USPTO-Zuordnung, Espacenet|
M. c. BAUMANN STANDARD STICK CONTROL (July 15' 1924.
Filed Aug. '5. 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 fnueni'u? Juiy 15., 1924.
M. C. BAUMANN STANDARD STICK CONTROL Filed Aug. 5. 1920 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patente July 15, 1924.
MILTON C. BAUMANN, OF DAYTON, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO DAYTON-WRIGHT COMPANY, OF DAYTON, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
STANDARD STICK CONTROL.
Application filed August a, 1920. Serial No. 400,975.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, MILTON C. BAUMANN, a citizen of the United States of America, residing at Dayton, county of Montgomery, State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Standard Stick Controls, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
The present invention relates to improvements in aeroplane control mechanism and more particularly to the control itself, a p'referred form of which has been chosen as convenient for the purposes of description and explanation.
Among the objects of the invention is an improvement in the mounting of the operating lever.
Another object is to provide a control which is capable of retaining the control surfaces of the aeroplane in adjusted position under normal flying conditions.
Still another object is to provide a stand ard form of control which is adapted for substantial duplication in multiple arrangement.
Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings wherein a preferred form of embodiment of the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary top view of the control mechanism showing the position of the control in the fuselage of the aeroplane and connection of the control to the ailerons and elevators.
Fig. 2 is a side view of the control showing the mounting for the lever and elements of the brake.
Fig. 3 is a view, partly in section along the line 33 of Fig. 2 and partly in elevation, of the control with the elevator masts attached.
Fig. 1 is a top view of the ball showing more particularly the grooves therein.
Fig. 5 is a side View showing an adaptation of the brake to a rudder control and a tandem arrangement of controls.
Fig. 6 shows, diagrammatically, several of the controls operably connected.
In the drawings, wherein, as before stated, one preferred embodiment of the present invention is illustrated, the numeral 20 refers to an aeroplane, 21 to the control itself as a whole and 22 to a convenient type of rudder control device (shown in Fig. 5).
The aeroplane has a control mechanism comprising the usual ailerons, elevators and rudder; the control 21 having the operating lever 30, secured to the floor 120 of the aeroplane; means for operably connecting this control to the ailerons and. elevators; a rudder control device 22; means for 0 erably connecting the control 21 to the ru der control 22; and operating means from the rudder control to the rudder.
Clear distinction should be drawn between the control mechanism described above, the control itself, and the control surfaces which include only the ailerons, elevators and rud- 1 der. For convenience, in the specification and claims which follow, control is used to refer to the device itself.
Referring more particularly to Fi 2 and 3, in which the control 21 is clear? illustrated, the operating lever 30 has an improved type of mounting comprising a sliding yoke mounting having a ball 50, into and through which the lower end of the lever extends. Although there may be other satisfactory methods of mounting this lever, for the purposes of the present invention it is preferred to do so by the coaction of the threaded portion 31 of the lever with the threaded portion 52 of the ball. The universal joint further comprises the housing 40 and the cranks or sliding yokes 60. In this mounting the lever 30 is fulcrumed by the ball 50 in such a way as to be capable of rocking either about a transverse axis or a fore and aft axis, the extent of which it is desirable to -govern by the size of the opening 48 in the top of the housing 40. In the present case this opening is such as to permit an angular movement of about 40 from the vertical, which movement is believed ample for permitting any normal control of the ailerons and elevators.
The ball 50 (see Fig. 4), which it has been found preferable to construct'of manganese bronze, although other metals may be substituted, has through its center a hole 51, the lower portion of which is provided with threads 52. Further, it is also provided with circumferential grooves 53 and 54, which, when the-ball is in its normal (or neutral) position, are in fore and aft (53) and lateral (54) positions, respectively, and which extend from an upper neck portion 55 to a similar lower neck portion 56.
The cranks 6O consist of yoke portions 62 and shaft portions 61. These yoke portions are adapted to fit slidably in the grooves 53 and 54 so that their back surfaces do not protrude beyond the outer surface of ball 50. With this sliding fit, a fore and aft motion of the lever in the aeroplane will impart a full and positive rotary motion to the shafts 61 of the elevator cranks 66, but no motion to the shafts of the aileron cranks 64 and 65, and a lateral motion of the lever will impart a full and positive rotary motion to the shafts of the aileron cranks and no motion to the shafts of the elevator cranks.
The housing 40 shown in section in Fig.
'3 and in aside View in Fig. 2 encloses the ball 50 and the yoke portions 62 and has bearing members 47 for all of the shafts 61. It comprises the upper portion 41 and the lower portion 42 with suitable means, such as bolts, for securing the two portions together. Any suitable method of fixing the control in the aeroplane may be used, but it is preferred to accomplish this by means of the upper portion 41 of the housing which portion has a shelf 45 adapted to be secured to floor 120 of the aeroplane.
The elevator cranks 66 have masts 70 secured to the ends of their shafts 61. These masts are connected from their tops and bottoms, by suitable means 71, to the elevators in the usual manner (see Fig. 5).
Further reference to Fig. 5 shows an extension tube 111 connected by the joint 112 to the crank for operating the lever 116. This lever operates cranks 114 in the usual manner thus giving a positive turning motion to the aileron torque tube 110 and an opposite positive turning motion to the other torque tube 117 (see Fig. 1). It is to be understood that this constitutes only one of the many possible methods of operating the ailerons from the crank 65 and is no part of the present application.
That part of the control 21 which comprises the braking means will now be described. Operating within the walls of the housing 40 is a plunger 90 which comprises a shaft portion 91 having a slot 92, and a body portion 93. Thehousing 40 has an extended portion 43 and a guide portion 44 which contain the plunger 90.
A frictional member 32 is fixed on the bottom of the lever 30. Although several different materials will serve satisfactorily, it is preferred to use fiber in cylindrical block form. The preferred method of securing the lever 30 to the ball 50, hereinbefore described, peumits adjustment of the lever relative to the ball and consequently to the housing 40. The plunger 90 has its upper surface of concave curvature to correspond with the curvature of the inner surface of the housing. Thus as the lever 30 is adjusted more deeply within the ball the frictional element 32 is caused to coact with the upper surface of the plunger 90 to exert a braking action. The plunger body portion 93 is large to permit contact with the frictional element 32 for all ordinary positions of the lever 30.
Along with the guide 44, an ear 46 on the housing 40 is slotted through its vertical center line corresponding with the slot 92, to establish a guide for the bell crank 80 which is pivotally mounted in the ear at 82. Thus, in order to coact sufliciently wit-h the plunger 90, the friction element 32 must be pushed down by the lever 30 until whatever impediment the crank 80 offers is overcome. In this way friction will be caused not only between the frictional element 32 and the plunger 90 but also, on account of a reactive force resulting therefrom, between the ball and the housing. This frictional effect is suflicient to produce a braking action which tends to retain the operating device and consequently the ailerons and elevators in adjusted position. It is evident that the same braking action for the ailerons and elevators may be obtained by eliminating the extended portion 43 and continuing the lower portion 42 of the housing 40 to fit the ball 50.
Fig. 5 shows clearly the connection of the braking means to the rudder control 22. The bell crank 80 consists of the arm 84, operated by the plunger 90 and guided in the slot 92, and the arm 83. When the lever 30 pushes down on the plunger 90.it causes the bell crank 80 to swing about its pivot. As the arm 83 is connected by means of a flexible cable or cord 81 to a brake 86 operating upon the rudder control 22, the swing ing of the bell crank 80 will cause this brake to coact with the rudder control to tend to retain the rudder in its adjusted position. It is to be understood that other methods of imparting the. braking action may! be employed without departing from the spirit of the invention.
The rudder control 22 chosen as convenient for purposes of description comprises the two levers 101 and 102 having pedals 105 and 106 respectively and suitable connecting means 103 to the rudder. The lever pivots or shafts are connected by gears 107 and 108. Either one of these shafts 104 may have a brake wheel 87 secured to its end opposite to the lever upon which wheel a brake 86 operates.
Thus the braking means tends to retain not only the ailerons and elevators in adjusted position but also the rudder through the medium of its control device 22. This braking action is desirable for long distance flying as it relieves the operator of his giving constant attention to the control. The braking effect is of such a degree that it may be overcome, instantaneously, by the operators strength, when it becomes necessary, under abnormal conditions, such as faulty or heavy air loads, to change the adjustment of the ailerons and elevators. By overcoming by strength is meant forcing the lever to take another position without actually releasing it. It may be released quickly, however, by turning the lever 30 in a direction opposite to that causing the braking action, thus causin the frictional element 32 to release itself from contact with the plunger 90.
It will be noted that by constructing the control 21 in substantially the form indicated, it is adapted to be used for the purpose of either single, dual or even multiple control arrangement wherein the several devices are substantial duplicates. Further reference to Fig. 5 shows how the control 21 may be connected in tandem arrangement with a substantial duplicate control 23. By means of simple connections, such as the tube 113 and joints 112, the ailerons may be actuated from the control 23, since the turning motion imparted to its crank 67 is imparted by these connecting means to the crank 64 of the control 21, which crank, through the medium of the ball 50, causes the forward crank 65.to turn. By attaching the connecting means 71 from the masts to the masts 72 on control 23 the elevators may be actuated from either control.
If another rudder control 26 be installed as shown, the rudder brake lever 89 of con trol 23 may be connected to a brake 86 on the rudder control 26 by means of a flexible cable or cord 88, and the connecting means 103 may be attached to the levers of the control 26 and continued therefrom to the rudder. But if no separate rudder controlbe installed, the connecting means 88 may be connected to lever 80.
It is evident that an number of controls, substantially the dup icates of control 21, may be connected in tandem by the use of suitable means such as described above.
Referring to Fig. 6 the connecting tubes 119 are adaptable for connecting the controls 21 and 24 and controls 23 and 25 all substantial duplicates in side to side arrangement for operating the elevators. A pair of flexible cables or cords 118 and the masts 73, of a type similar to masts 70, are adaptable for connecting up these same controls for operating the ailerons. A similar connection of braking mechanism may be used for connecting controls 24 and 25 as is used for controls 21 and 23.
Thus it is evident that any desired numher of these controls may be added in side to side arrangements by the use of suitable connecting means such as described above for controls 21 and 24.
Further it is obvious that any multiple arrangement desired may be obtained by using connecting means such as used between controls 21 and 23 and between controls 21 and 24.
The invention, however, is not limited to such connecting means as described, for any suitable means, permitting the connection of controls which are substantial duplicates of control 21, may be substituted.
This feature, of being able to connect the control 21 to substantially duplicate controls such as control 23 or control 24L so that the ailerons and elevators may be actuated by any one of the devices and so that a braking action may be exerted by any one of the devices to tend to retain the ailerons elevators and rudder in adjusted position under normal flying conditions, has the advantage, among others, of not only standardizing parts but also standardizing the control itself.
Another feature of standardization lies in the fact that for assembly all the cranks 60 are made the same. The variation which distinguishes these cranks comes in the method of connecting themto their respective control elements, namely the ailerons and elevators.
It is thought that the operation of the control is obvious from the above description and explanation. Further, from this description, it is evident that a control has been devised which is safe, sure and sufficient in operation,.giving positive motion to the ailerons and elevations, which control is simple and compact in structure, having eliminated links found in previous types of controls, and which is capable of exerting a braking effect upon the ailerons, elevators and rudder which is sure and sufficient under normal flying conditions.
It is obvious that other types of controls may be devised without varying in any way from the fundamentals of construction set out above. And it is equally obvious that the braking means herein described and claimed may be used satisfactorily with other types of operating devices, or that the operating device herein described and claimed may be adapted to be used with other types of braking means with equal satisfaction, without departing from the spirit of the present invention.
While the form of mechanism herein shown and described constitutes a preferred form of embodiment of the invention it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow.
1. An aeroplane having braking means adapted to hold ailerons and elevators in adjusted position, and a second braking means simultaneously operable with the first named braking means to hold the rudder in adjusted position.
2. In control mechanism for aeroplanes, having an operating lever; braking means tending to retain the ailerons, elevators and rudder in adjusted position, said means comprising a frictional member secured to the lever; means, stationary with respect to the l ver and affording surface capable of coclin with the frictional member to secure a braking action; and means permitting the adjustment of the frictional member so as to coact with said surface to secure the braking action.
3. A braking means for an operating lever, comprising a frictional member secured to the lower end of the lever; a ball housing stationary with respect to the lever and having means adapted to coact with the frictional member; a ball operating within the housing and secured to the lever; and means permitting the adjustment of the lever in and thru the ball permitting the frictional member to coact with said coacting means to secure the braking action.
4. In control mechanism for aeroplanes having a stick control, braking means which tend to retain the ailerons in adjusted position, said means being operable by the rotation of the control stick.
5. In control mechanism for aeroplanes having a stick control, braking means which tend to retain the elevators in adjusted position, said means being operable by the rotation of the controlstick.
6. In control mechanism for aeroplanes having a stick control, braking means which tend to retain the rudder in adjusted position, said means being operable by the rotation of the control stick.
7. In control mechanism for aeroplanes having a stick control, braking means which tend to retain the ailerons and elevators in adjusted position, said means being operable by the rotation of the control stick.
8. In control mechanism for aeroplanes having independent rudder'and aileron controls, braking means tending to retain the rudder and ailerons in adjusted position,
said braking means having common operat ing means.
9. In control mechanism for aeroplanes having independent rudder and elevator controls, braking means which tend to retain the rudder and elevators in adjusted position, said braking means having common operating means.
10. In control mechanism for aeroplanes having a hand lever for actuating the ailerons and elevators, and an independently operated rudder the combination with the lever, of braking means operable to tend to retain the ailerons, elevators and rudder in adjusted position, said means being operable by the rotation of the hand lever.
11. The combination with an aeroplane of a control having a hand lever for actuating the ailerons, braking means for the lever, which tends to retain the ailerons in adjusted position, said means being operableby a separate movement of the hand lever.
12. The combination with an aeroplane of a control having a hand lever for actuating the elevators, braking means for the lever, which tends to retain the elevators in adjusted position, said means being operable by a separate movement of the hand lever.
13. The combination with an aeroplane of a control having a hand lever for actuating the ailerons and elevators, and braking means for the lever, which tends to retain the ailerons and elevators in adjusted position, said means being operable by a separate movement of the hand lever.
l-l. In an aeroplane, a plurality of interconnected controls in multiple arrangement, the several controls being substantial duplicates, and comprising hand levers for actuating the ailerons and elevators, and braking means for the levers, operable to tend to retain the ailerons'and elevators in adjusted position, said braking means being operable by a separate movement of the hand lever.
In testimony whereof I hereto afiix my signature.
MILTON C. BAUMANN.
ROBERT E. SMITH, ALVINA C. LEHMAN.
|Zitiert von Patent||Eingetragen||Veröffentlichungsdatum||Antragsteller||Titel|
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|Internationale Klassifikation||B64C13/04, B64C13/00|