|Veröffentlichungsdatum||5. Jan. 1932|
|Eingetragen||19. Aug. 1929|
|Prioritätsdatum||19. Aug. 1929|
|Veröffentlichungsnummer||US 1839395 A, US 1839395A, US-A-1839395, US1839395 A, US1839395A|
|Erfinder||Kauffman Clayton O|
|Ursprünglich Bevollmächtigter||Kauffman Clayton O|
|Zitat exportieren||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenziert von (11), Klassifizierungen (5)|
|Externe Links: USPTO, USPTO-Zuordnung, Espacenet|
Jan. 5, 1932. c, o, UF M I 1 839395 APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING TREMOLO EFFECTS Filed Aug. 19, 1929 Patented Jan. 5, 1932 CLAYTON o. KAUFFM N, or sAn'rA an; CALIFORNIA APrAnA'rus roe, rnonucme 'mim oro EFFECTS Application filed August-19, 1929." Serial no; 386,855.
This invention relates to a device or appa:-
'ratus, adapted for use on various stringed instruments where it is desired toproduce a tremolo efiect or a vibration resulting in a tremolo effect. i
More particularly, the invention relates to a movable tail-piece for stringed instru ments, whereby the pitch of theisounds produced by the vibratingstrings may be varied so as to produce a tremolo-effect.
' The invention will hereinafter bedescribed' with particular reference to the application,
of the device of this invention to a portable stringed instrument such as for example, a banjo. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited in its application to a portable stringed instrument, but relates to the production of tremolo effects on all 1n more detail the construction. of the device.
, stringed instruments, such as for example, mandolins, guitars, banjos, harps or pianos. Tremolo devices have been constructed for use with certain stringed instruments, but such tremolo devices have" had two major,
faults. In the first place, they could not be.
easily operated. Moststringed instruments are operated by plucking the strings with a movement of the hand at right angles to the,
axis ofthe strings. The tremolo devices of v v the prior art had to be operated by a move ment of the hand at right angles to'the movement executed during playing. Furthermore, the tremolo eifect which was produced varied the pitch of the note or sound being emitted by the instrument, such variationchanging the average pitch to above the normal or desired'pitch or tone. Forexample, if the note a was sounded on a string, the tremolo would cause the pitch to vary be tween a and b giving an average of effective note equivalent to about a sharp.
An. object ofthis invention is to disclose and provide a means for producing tremolo effects so that the effective frequency or pitch of a desired note is maintained substantially constant. a i
A still further object is to disclosev and provide means for alternately increasing and decreasing the tension in. a. vibrating string so as to vary the frequency of the vibration from above to below the normal frequency.
f A still further object is to disclose and pro.- vide an apparatus by means of which tremolo effects can be obtained on stringed instruments. v r
Another object of; this invention isto disan close and, provide a device for varying the, frequency of vibrations of stringed-instru ments to above and below normal or desired frequencies, so as. to produce tremolo effects.
Other objects, uses and advantages of this an invention as well as its novel characteljfitics and distinguishing features will become ap parent from the followinvdetailed description, reference being ha to the appended drawings, in which: 1
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a banjo equipped with a device embraced b this invention. f
Fig. 2 is an end view 0 the banjo showing Fig. 3 is a vertical section, taken along line 7o. 33 of Fig.2. Fig. lis'a plan view, partly in section, of
the device shown in Fig. 2,.the section being.
taken along line 4-4 thereof.
Fig. 5 is a plan view, partly in section, of a 75 mddified form of device. 7
Fig. 6 is a vertical section taken along line fi -f Fig. 5. I 1
. As hasbeen stated before, the invention will be described as it may housed and ap-. so
plied to a portable stringed instrument, and
slightly curved base 7. The tail-piece 2. is
preferably attached to a stationary member 5 8 through the intervention of suitable elastic spring means As shown in. Figs. 2,3 and 4, the station ary member 8 may be angular in section and 1 provided with an outwardly extending lug l) 0L adapted to receive a screw 10 having a threaded end provided with a nut 11, said screw 10 passing through a suitable lug 12 attached to the rim 6 of the musical instrument. The stationary member 8 is also preferably provided with an extension 13 having bifurcated ends 14 and 15. The movable tail-piece 2 is preferably connected to the stationary member 13 by means of an elastic means, such as a tension spring 16, one end of said spring being connected to the stationary member 8 (at portion 13 thereof) as by means of a rivet or bolt 17.
If desired, a strap 18 maybe employed for gripping the end of the a ring 16 and retaining it in vibrationless contact with the portion 1.3 of the stationary member 8, the strap 18 being attached to the member 13 by means of bolts or rivets 19. The opposed end of the tension spring 16 may be connected by suitable means, as for example, the hooks 20 and 21, with the tail-piece In this manner the strings 1 are maintained in tension by reason of the spring 16, minor adjustments of tension being made in the customary manner by pegs 22 at the head of the instrument.
In order to create a. quavering, tremulous or vibrating tone, means is provided for mov ing the tail-piece 2 so as to alternately increase or decrease the tension of the vibrating strings 1, while they are plucked or otherwise caused to vibrate. Such means may include a member 23 preferably consisting of a. heavy spring to which the hooks 20 and 21 are attached in any suitable manner, as for example,by welding. The member 23 has preferably one end firmly anchored as by means of the machine screw 2 1, to a block or other solid portion attached or made a part of the stationary member 8. The block 25 may be attached by means of machine screws 26 to the end 14 of portion 13 of the stationary member 8, the screws 26 operating in slots 27 formed in the member 25 so to permit an adjustment of the block 25 longitudinally.
The opposed end of the member 23 may be connected to a holder 28 adapted to receive an actuating arm 29, said actuating arm 29 being preferably provided with a ring 30 adapted to receive one of the lingers of the person playing the instrument. A set screw 31 may be provided for adjustably positioning: the actuating member 29 in the holder In order to increase the tension on the head 5 of the instrument, alever arm may be provided, said arm 32 being connected to the stationary member 8 by means of a screw 33 suitably attached to the member 8 as by welding, the screw passing through an aperture in the member 32.
A nut 34 may be provided for attaching the member 32 to the member 8. A thumb screw 35 may be threadedly mounted in the member 32 and adapted to rest against the lower portion of member 8, so as to cause the opposite end 36 of the member 32 to bear down against the tail piece 2. The end 36 of member may be provided with aplurality of grooves 37 extending transversely to the strings 1, said grooves 37 being adapted to receive a spacing plate 38 adapted to rest against the tail-piece 2. This construction permits any desired pressure to be applied to the tail-piece 2 by means of the thumb screw 35, the member 32 acting as a lever pivoted on the screw 33 and adjustably positioned by the thumb screw 35. The entire device may be enclosed by means of a cover 39 removably attached to the stationary member 8, or to the bifurcated portions 1 1 and 15 thereof. For example, the cover 39 may be provided with a lip lO and a snap portion 41-1 adapted to engage with the edges of the members 14: and 15.
It will be seen that, after the instrument has been properly tuned by operation of peas 22, the tail-piece 2 will assume a prcdeter mined pos tion between the stationary member 8 and the bridge 4. The block member is then preferably adjusted so that the member 23 assumes a normal position substantially at right angles to the axis of the strings 1.. The instrument may then be played in the normal manner.
If it is desired to produce a tremolo effect. the member 29 is moved back and forth so that the ring 30 describes an arc, an extension of which would cross the strings 1. This are follows the normal movement of the hand in playing an instrument of the character described hereinabove. This motion of member 29 imparts an arcuate or vibratory movementto the member 23, as indicated by the arrows, said member 23 being stationary at one end, namely, the end that is held. in contact with block 25 and stationary member 8. As a re sult of this vibrating movement of the memer 23, the tail-piece 2 is moved slightly in substantially the plane of the strin 1, so to alternately increase and decrease the tension of the strings 1.
The amplitude of the motion of he tailpiece 2 is very slight and generally less than h-th of an inch, althousrh the motion of the member 29 at its extreme may be appreciable. namely, 2 to 4 inches. The member 38 ing on the tail-piece 2 pivots at its upper edge in the grooves 37 of lever arm 36, and the efore, does not influence the reciprocating mo tion of the movable tail-piece 2.
In this manner the tension of the vibrating: strings 1 is varied during operation of the instrument, the variation being of equal amplitude on each side of the normal position of the tail-piece.
In this manner the frequency of the vibrations from the strings 1 is varied from above to below the normal frequency, the average frequencies or mean frequencies during operation of the device being equivalent to normal frequency. The tremulous or wavering effect this produced does not change the 'meanfrequency of the vibrating strings, but merely causes said strings to change in pitch from normal to above normal, back to normal, and then below normal. A very pleasing and accurate effect is thus obtained which is not obtainable with any of the known devices designed to obtain a similar result. 7
It is to be understood that although the member 29 as disclosed hereinabove is adapted for manual operation, mechanical means may be provided for vibrating the member 29 on the member 23.
In Figs. 5 and 6 a modified formof construction is shown. The movable tailpiece 2 is here provided with an extension 43 which is connected by means of the tension spring 16 with the stationary member 8. The block attached to the stationary member 8 is preferably provided with an aperture 44 adapted to receive a member 23 provided with pointed pins 45 adapted to be rotatably seated or pivoted in the upper and lower portions of block 25 enclosing the aperture 44. I
The member 23 may be connected by any suitable means, as for example, a heavy spring member 46, to a suitable actuating means such as the holder 28 and the member 29. The member 23' of the spring member 46 may, therefore, pivot at 45. The member 23 is also preferably connected to the tail-piece 2, a U-shaped member 47 being preferably attached to the longitudinal extension 43 of the tail-piece 2 in any suitable manner and provided with recesses adapted to receive a pin 48 carried by the member 23. [A reciprocated radial motion of the member 23' on the pivot 45 will thus be translated into a reciprocated longitudinal motion of the tailk piece 2 by reason of the connection made between the tail-piece 2 and particularly the U-shaped member 47 with the member 23 by means of the pin 48. I
It has been found that an instrument provided with the device described hereinabove maintains its tone or correct pitch for a much longer period of time than an instrument provided with an ordinary stationary tail-piece. The spring 16 apparently equalizes the tension on the strings and takes care of minor variations which may occur due to elongation of the strings. Furthermore, instruments provided with the elastic flexible and movable tail-piece embraced by this invention can be subjected to much greater abuse without breaking the strings. If, for example, one
or more of the strings of an instrument of this character are greatly displaced by the operator, they will not break, as the spring 16 gives and thereby the tension or load on the strings is reduced.
Furthermore, instruments provided with this invention are capable of producing a greater volume of tone, the entire instrument vibrating under the influence of thevibrations' of the strings, instead of imparting such vibrations to the head of the instrument only. 1 l
The purpose of the lever member 32 is, as has beendescribed before, to increase pressure on'the head 5 through the bridge member 4.- The lever member 32 issparticularly adapted for use on banjos, and other stringed instruments, such as guitars or mandolins'do not need this particular portion of the device.
It is to be understood that numerous changes and modificationsmay be made in the construction of the device, and numerous adaptations and uses may be made thereof without departing from the scope of this in vention. The invention broadly relates to a device including a movable tail-piece and the provision of meanswhereby the tension'oi' strings of an instrument may be increased and decreased alternately, by moving a tail-piece substantially along the axis of the strings and without bending the strings themselves, thereby obviating the tendency for'the strings to break: All changes and modifications coming within the scope of the followingclaims are embraced thereby. V
1. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination of a tail-piece adapted to anchor vibrating strings, spring means connected to said tail-piece and adapted to maintain the V strings under tension, and means for moving said tail-piece so as toalternately increase and decrease the tension of said vibrating strings.
2. Ina stringed musical instrument, the
combination of a tail-piece adapted to anchor V vibrating strings and adapted to be moved in a plane substantially in the plane of said strings, spring means connected to said tailpiece and adapted to maintain the strings under tension, and means for moving said tail-piece so as to alternately. increase and de crease the tension of said vibrating strings;
3. In 'a stringed mu'sicalinstrument, the combination of a tail-piece adapted to receive-an'dhold ends of vibrating strings, an anchor, member, spring means connecting said tail-piece and anchor member and adapted to maintain the strings under tension, and means for moving said tail-piece substantially in the plane of said strings-so as to alternately increase and decrease the tension of said vibrating strings;
4. In a device for producing tremolo. effects,
on stringedmusical instruments, the combination'of a tail-piece adapted to receive and hold the ends of vibrating strings, an anchor member secured to the body of the stringed instrument, spring means, connecting said tail-piece and anchor member and adapted to maintain-the strings under tension, and
means for moving said tail-piece so as to alternately increase and decrease the tension of said vibrating strings.
5. In a device for producing tremolo effects on stringed mnsi *al instrmnents, the combination of a tail-piece adapted to receive and hold the ends of vibrating strings, an anchor men'iber, spring means connecting said tail piece and anchor member and adapted to maintain the strings under tension, and means for moving said tailpiece so as to alternately increase and decrease the tension of said vibrating strings, said means including a member substantially transverse to the longitudinal :is of the strings.
6. In a device for producing tremolo effects on stringed musical instuments, the combination of a taihpiece adapted to receive and hold the ends 0' vibrating strings, an anchor member, spring .means connecting said tailpiece and anchor member and adapted to maintain the strings nnder tension, and means for moving said tail-piece so as to alternately increase and decrease the tension of said vibrating strings, sa' means including a member pivotally connected to the anchor member at one end and operably connected to the tail-piece and spring.
7. In a device or producing tremolo effects on stringed musical i1 tmments, the combination of a tail-piece adapted to receive and hold the ends of vib1'. ;in,q strings, an anchor member, spring means connecting said tailpiece and anchor member and adapted to maintain the strings under tension, and means for moving said tail-piece so as to alternately increase and decrease the tension oi said vibrating strings, said means including a member pivotally connected to the an chor member at one end, and operably connected to the tail-piece and spring and pro vided at the other end with means for imparting a re iprocating motion thereto.
8. In a devlce "for producing tremolo effects on stringed mnsicel instrmnents, the combination of a tail-piece adapted to receive and hold the ends of vibrating strings, said tail piece being movable substantially longitudinally of said strings, means for moving said tail-piece iongitndinally 01"? said strings so as to alternately increase and decrease the tension of said strings, an anchor member and spring means between said last named means and anchor member, adapted to maintain the the strings under tension.
9. In a device for producing tremolo effects on stringed musical instruments, the combination ot a ta" niece adapted to receive and hold the ends oi vibrating strings, means for moving sail tail-piece substantially longitudinally oi the strings so as to alternately increase and decrease the tension of said strin 's, said means including a member substantially parallel to said strings and movable in an are extending across said strings,
|Zitiert von Patent||Eingetragen||Veröffentlichungsdatum||Antragsteller||Titel|
|US2741146 *||30. Aug. 1954||10. Apr. 1956||Fender Clarence L||Tremolo device for stringed instruments|
|US2897711 *||17. Sept. 1958||4. Aug. 1959||Albert Punturi||Tremolo device for stringed musical instruments|
|US2972923 *||6. Nov. 1958||28. Febr. 1961||Fender Clarence L||Floating tremolo and bridge construction for lute-type musical instruments|
|US3248991 *||10. Sept. 1963||3. Mai 1966||Harry G Cole||Tremolo device for stringed instruments|
|US4604936 *||4. Jan. 1985||12. Aug. 1986||Fender Musical Instruments Corporation||Snap-in vibrato arm|
|US4864909 *||23. Nov. 1988||12. Sept. 1989||Toney William L||Stringed instrument and tremolo apparatus|
|US5198601 *||31. Okt. 1990||30. März 1993||Mccabe Geoffrey||Tuning means for stringed musical instrument|
|US8796524||11. Juni 2012||5. Aug. 2014||Brent Douglas Deck||Stringed instrument improvements|
|EP1704557A2 *||27. Dez. 2004||27. Sept. 2006||Donald L. Ramsay||Adjustable tremolo bridge|
|EP1704557A4 *||27. Dez. 2004||29. Okt. 2008||Donald L Ramsay||Adjustable tremolo bridge|
|WO1984004483A1 *||6. Mai 1983||22. Nov. 1984||Cbs Inc||Snap-in vibrato arm|
|Internationale Klassifikation||G10D3/00, G10D3/14|