|Veröffentlichungsdatum||18. Nov. 1952|
|Eingetragen||21. Juni 1946|
|Prioritätsdatum||21. Juni 1946|
|Veröffentlichungsnummer||US 2618235 A, US 2618235A, US-A-2618235, US2618235 A, US2618235A|
|Erfinder||Jr Ernest A Clark|
|Ursprünglich Bevollmächtigter||Jr Ernest A Clark|
|Zitat exportieren||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patentzitate (12), Referenziert von (9), Klassifizierungen (7)|
|Externe Links: USPTO, USPTO-Zuordnung, Espacenet|
Nov. 18, 1952 E. A. CLARK, JR 2,618,235
BOAT CONTROL MECl IANISM Filed June 21, 1945 2 SHEETSSHEET l TOR/VEYS.
Nov. 18, 1952 E. CLARK, JR 2,613,235
I BOAT CONTROL MECHANISM Filed June 21, 1946 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 1 I vllly/ MENTOR.
' TOR/YE Y5.
Patented Nov. 18, 1 952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 7 Claims.
This invention relates to controls for the propelling mechanism of relatively small power boats, and particularly to apparatus for controlling the operation of one or two internal combustion engines employed to rotate the boatpropelling mechanism.
Prior-known apparatuses of the above-referred-to type usually employ separate reversinggear and throttle-control levers so that when dual motors are to be controlled, four separate, independent levers are required simultaneously to be actuated in addition to the operation of the steering mechanism. Prior-known devices that combine the throttle-control and the reversinggear levers in a unitary assembly are objectionable because they usually rely for operation on electrical equipment which is best avoided in critical points in all small boat constructions. Other such devices include complicated cam structures requiring expensive designs that easily get out of order and are difficult to repair. Still others are of awkward constructions not adaptable to dual motor control.
Objects of this invention include the provision of a control for a relatively small power boat wherein a simple mechanical lever system is employed to effectively actuate the reversing gear of the power boat; the provision of such a control in which the actual reversing-gear actuation is effected through the functioning of a servomotor mechanism; the provision of such a control in which a single lever is provided for both reversing-gear and throttle operation; the provision of such a control for dual motors wherein the reversing-gear and throttle operation of each motor is controlled by a single, separate lever so arranged that both can simultaneously be operated by a single operator; the provision of such a control for dual motors that can be operated to maneuver the boat independently of the steering mechanism; and the provision of such a control in which it is impossible to operate the throttle While the reversing gear is being actuated.
The above, as well as other objects and novel features of the boat control, will become apparent from the following specification and accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of dual motors for a power boat to which the principles of the invention have been applied;
Figure 2 is a modification of a portion of the structure shown in Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a section taken substantially along line 3-'-3 of Figures 1 and 2;
Figure 4 is a detail of assembly showing an interlocking structure to prevent operation of the throttle of the motor when the reversing gearis being actuated;
Figure 5 is a section taken substantially along line 55 of Figure 1; and,
Figure 6 is a schematic diagram of a portion of the control including one of the servo-motors for operating one of the reversing gears.
Referring to Figure 1, the invention is shown as applied to a relatively small power boat including a port motor P and a starboard motor S, both of identical design and construction. Motors P and S are provided with identical reversing-gear mechanisms R (only one of which is specifically shown, Fig. 6) that are adapted to be operated through the actuation of servomotors S. The servo-motors S which supply the power for operating the reversing-gear mechanisms R are controlled by the operation of identical manual controls M. Conventional carburetors on motors P and S are also controlled by the manual controls M.
Referring to Figure 6, the mechanism R is of any well-known design, and it will become evident from the description which follows that the type of such reversing mechanism in no way limits the application of the principles of the invention. It includes an oscillatable shaft Hi to which an operating handle H is fixed. A sleeve [2 is splined to a driven or propelling shaft [3, and includes a clutch throw-out bearing l4 having a non-rotatable race [5, a rotatable race l5 integral with the sleeve l2, and anti-friction balls between the races. Trunnions IE on the race ii are engaged by a fork ll that is fixed to shaft l0. Accordingly, oscillation of the handle ll causes reciprocation of sleeve I2. Sleeve [2 is also provided with three peripherally-arranged sockets [B into each of which the one end of a bell-crank lever l9 extends. The opposite arms of bellcrank levers l9 are adapted to engage means for moving a plurality of normally-stationary clutch discs axially into engagement with other normally-rotating clutch discs. A locking bar 20 is attached to handle II and it cooperates with a brake band 2| for preventing the rotation of a housing 22 of the mechanism R. The construction and arrangement of the parts are such that movement of handle II in one direction (Fig. 6) causes the movement of the normally-stationary clutch discs into engagement with normally-rotating discs, and releasing of brake band 2| to permit housing 22, bell-cranks l9 and sleeve [2 to rotate as a unit, thereby driving the propelling 3 shaft in a forward direction. Movement of handle II in the opposite direction separates the clutch discs and tightens the brake band 2| to stop the rotation of housing 22, thereby causing the propelling shaft I3 to be driven in a reverse direction through a train of reversing gears with in housing 22.
The handle H is adapted to be oscillated by a servo-motor S comprising a cylinder 23 within which a piston 24 is adapted to "be reciprocated. The piston 24 is integral with a partially hollow tube 25 that is connected to the handle II. A valve 26 extends into the hollow tube 25 and includes adjustable nuts 21 and 21 for limiting its longitudinal movement therein.
The engine P is adapted to drive a fluid pump 28, the pressure fluid from which passes through a line 29 into an accumulator 30, thence through a safety relief valve 3| that is connected to a reservoir 32 by a line 33. The pressure fluid passesthrough line, 34 to the cylinder 23. With the partsin the neutral position shown in Figure 6, the pressure fluid passes through a port 35 in the piston 24 to the interior of tubular member 25, between two spools 36 and 3'1 on the valve rod 26. The pressure fluid then passes through the two inclined ports 38 and 39 in the piston 24 to opposite sides thereof, holding the piston against movement, and consequently the handle II also.
. The cylinder 23 is provided with exhaust ports 40, 4| located, respectively, adjacent to the left and right hand ends of two spools 42, 43 formed on the valve 26. In the position shown in Figure 6, the fluid acting on each face of the piston 24 exhausts through ports 40 and 4! into chambers formed by spools 31, 42 on the one hand, and spool ,43 and a shoulder 44 on valve 26 on the other hand. The valve-rod 26 is provided with a drilled longitudinal passage 45 and three transverse ports 46, 4'1 and 48 extending through the valve-rodand intersecting passage 45.
The exhaust from ports 40, 41 passes through ports 46 and 41, thence through drilled passage 45,, thence through port 48 to an exhaust line 49 leading tothe intake side of pump 28. This side of pump 28 is also connected to the reservoir 32 by a line 50. From the foregoing, it is evident that with the parts in the position shown in Figure 6, the piston 24 is held against movement by equal fluidpressure on each side thereof, while still permitting free, continuous flow of fluid through the system, thereby preventing overloading of pump 28. The position of the parts as shown in Figure 6 represents the neutral position of the reversing mechanism R and a springpressed detent 26 is adapted to cooperate with a recess in shaft 26 to inform the operator when the apparatus is in a neutral position.
Movement of valve 26 rightwardly causes exhaust port 4| to be closed by spool 43, while exhaust port 40 remains open to port 46. Accordingly, piston 24 moves rightwardly an amount proportional to the rightward movement of valve 26 until exhaust port passes beyond spool 43 causing the pressure fluid on each side of piston 24 to become equalized, thereby stopping the latters movement, and still permitting the abovereferred-to free circulation of the fluid through the system.
Leftward movement of valve 26 closes port 40 by spool 42, while exhaust port 4! remains open to port 41, whereupon piston 2-4 moves leftwardly until port 40 passes beyond spool 42, thereby causing the fluid pressure on each side of piston 24 to become equal. It is evident, therefore, that any slight movement in either direction of valve 26 causes a proportional movement of the piston 24 in the same direction and with it, handle ll.
The force required to move valve 26 is negligible compared with the force required to move the clutch-shifting handle of the reversing gear, which great force is overcome by hydraulic pressure in response to the movement of valve 26 requiring relatively little force. Furthermore, it is evident that the servo-motor mechanism of this invention is unique in that upon its completion of every operation in response to movement of the valve 26, the fluid in the system continues to circulate without overloading the pump 28, without building up excessive pres-sures in the system, and most of all, without consuming power from the motor P or S that drives the pump 28. It 'is pertinent to note also that the valve 3| is simply a relief valve and in the present invention normally does not function, although it would be required to function if the fluid in the circuit were prevented from freely and continuously flowing when the servo-motor was idle.
The valves 26 for each motor P and S are connected to separate draw bars 5| and 52 (Fig. 1 through pivotal joints 5| (only one being shown) for a purpose to be described later. The bars 5| 52 are also provided with pivot mountings 53 54 that support upstanding bars 55, 56. The bars 55, 56 are pivoted to a stationary shaft 51 lo- :cated between the ends of bars 55, 56 and shown in Figure 1 as substantially midway of the length of bars 55, 56. From-the foregoing, it is evident that the lower ends of bars 55 and 66 move in an arc of a circle, while valves 26 move along a straight line. This angularity is accommodated by the pivotal connections 5| between valves 26 and bars 5!, 52. The length of shaft 51, and
consequently the distance between bars 55,
is such that an operator standin between said bars can conveniently grasp one of the bars 55 and 56 in each hand for simultaneous actuation. Preferably, these bars 55, 56 are located on each side of the steering wheel of the boat. The bars 55, 56 are provided at their upper ends with bosses 56, 53 that support oscillatable hand'grips 60, 61. From the foregoing, it is clear that an operator may conveniently grasp hand grip 61 in his left hand and grip 60 in his right hand. Selective oscillation of bars 55, 56 about shaft 5'! :causes selective operation of the servo-motors S and, accordingly, selective operation of the reversing-gear mechanisms R. I I
Conventional carburetors 62, onlyone of which is shown in Figure l, are provided for motors P and S and have their butterfly valves actuated separately by draw rods 63, 64. The rods 63, 64 are connected through ball andsocket joints 65, 66 to horizontally-disposed links 67, '68. The opposite ends of links 61, 68 are rigidly attached to vertically-disposed rods H, '12 forming "bellcrank levers therewith. The rods 7|, 72pass through fixed guide members '13, 14, i5, 16. The upper ends of rods H, l 2 are rigidly attached to links H and ls respectively, forming bellcrank levers therewith. The links l7, were also provided with additional ball and-socket joints connecting them to horizontally-disposedrods l9 and 86 that are located in the horizontal plane containing the longitudinal axis of shaft 5 1. Shafts 19 and 66 are connected to links 81,}8'2 through ball and socket joints and these links are rigidly connected to rods 83, 84 forming bellcrank levers therewith; The "'rods83, *84extend'.
from the longitudinal axis of shaft 51 upwardly along bars 55, 56, respectively, and are connected to hand grips 60, 6 I, respectively.
The construction and arrangement of the parts are such that oscillation of hand grips 60, 6| about their longitudinal axes causes oscillation of rods 83, 84; links 8|, 82; rods 19, 80; links 11, 18; rods H, 12; and links 61, 68. Oscillation of links 61, 68 causes reciprocation of bars 63, 64, therebyactuating the butterfly valves of the carburetors for engines-P and S. The location of links 8| and 82 in a horizontal plane including the longitudinal axis of shaft permits oscillation of bars 55, 56 about said axis without disturbing th linkage for the carburetor control.
From the foregoing description it is evident that the carburetors 62 of the engines P and S should not be accelerated during the operation of the reversing-gear mechanisms R; otherwise the latter will prematurely fail due to the excessive wearing of the clutch plates thereof. Referring to Figures 4 and 5,.the handle 6| is provided with a cylindrical portion 85 having diametrically-opposite machined slots 86, 81 forming a section 88 of substantially rectangular outline. The section 88 is adapted to cooperate with a frame 89 having three portions 96, 9| and 92 which permit the unrestricted oscillation of the handle 6| so that the motor S can be accelerated at will when handle 6| is in position so that the section 88 thereof cooperates with said portions 90, 9| and 92. The portion 90 corresponds to the reversing gear R being in position to cause forward motion of the boat; portion 9| is neutral; and portion 92 corresponds to the reversing gear being in position to effect reverse motion of the boat.
'A narrow passage 93 joins portions 98 and 9|, while a similar passage 94 joins portions 92 and 9|; The passages 93 and 94 are of such construction that handle 6| will be forced into a predetermined oscillatable position (idling speed for the engine) before the rectangular section 88 can pass therethrough. This action is caused by cams 90', 9|; 9|" and 92' which, while shown integral with the frame 89, may be separate, adjustable cams affixed thereto. Accordingly, the frame 89 and construction of the handle 6| prevent the operation of the carburetor 62 while the reversing-gear mechanism R is being operated. An identical mechanism is provided for the handle 69.
Referring to Figure 3, a quadrant 95 is keyed to handle 6| having ratchet teeth 96 thereon which cooperate with a stationarily-located spring-pressed detent 91 for retaining the handle 6| in any adjusted position.
Referring to Figure 2, a modified form of the combined reversing-gear and throttle operator is shown. In this embodiment, an oscillatable handle 6| is pivoted to a shaft 51' adjacent to said handle; whereas in Figure 1, the shaft 51 is at a'substantial distance from its handle 6|. The handle 6| is connected to a rod 0r flexible shaft 98 through a universal joint 99, the pivotal axes of which lie substantially in the sam horizontal plane including the axis for shaft 51. The flexible shaft is connected to the carburetor, and the servo-motor S is connected through any desired linkage to an arm I08 integral with the support for the handle 6|.
Although the principles of the invention have been shown and described in detail to fully illustrate several embodiments of the invention, it is obvious that numerous changes may be made in the linkage and such details, and certain fea- 6 tures may be used without others without departing from the principles of the invention. For example, the servo-motors may be omitted and the reversing mechanism mechanically operated, as would be desirable, particularly from a cost standpoint, in stock-built craft.
What is claimed is:
1. In a boat, propelling mechanism; an inter-.
nal combustion engine drivingly connected to said propelling mechanism; a throttle mounted on said engine; a reversing gear within the driving connection between said engine and propelling mechanism having an operating lever connected thereto for rendering said gear effective and ineffective; a supporting shaft adapted to be attached to the frame of said boat; a lever pivotally connected to said suporting shaft; a draw bar connected. between one end of said pivoted lever and said operating lever; a handle connected to the other end of said pivoted lever in,
a manner so that it can be oscillated about its own longitudinal axis; means connecting said handle to said throttle, said means being responsive to the oscillation of said handle to control said throttle; and a support stationarily mounted relatively to said supporting shaft and including means for cooperating with means integral with said handle for preventing the oscillation of said handle while said pivoted lever is being moved between different pivotal positions.
2. In a boat having a steering wheel, a port motor and a starboard motor; a reversing gear connected to each motor; propelling mechanism connected to each reversing gear; a reversinggear arm connected to each reversing gear; a throttle attached to each motor; means for maneuvering said boat independently of said steering wheel comprising a supporting member stationarily mounted in close proximity to said steering wheel; operating levers pivotally mounted on said supporting member in spaced relation such that each may be grasped by one hand of an operator simultaneously; a draw bar connected between one end of each of said levers and the reversing-gear operating arm of its respective motor; a handle connected to the other end of each of said operating levers in a manner so that it can be oscillated about its own longitudinal axis; and means connectin said handle to said throttle, said means being responsive to the oscillation of said handle to control said throttle.
3. In a boat having a steering wheel, a port motor and a starboard motor; a reversing gear connected to each motor; propelling mechanism connected to each reversing gear; a reversinggear arm connected to each reversing gear; a throttle attached to each motor; means for maneuvering said boat independently of said steering wheel comprising a supporting member stationarily mounted in close proximity to said steering wheel; operating levers pivotally mounted on said supporting member in spaced relation such that each may be grasped by one hand of an operator simultaneously; a draw bar connected between one end of each of said levers and the reversing-gear operating arm of its respective motor; a handle connected to the other end of each of said operating levers in a manner so that it can be oscillated about its own longitudinal axis; means connecting said handle to said throttle, said means being responsive to the oscillation of said handle to control said throttle; and a plate for each of said handles stationarily mounted relatively to said supporting member and m cooperating position relatively to its gamma:
7. handle, each of said plates being providedwith cam means for cooperation with its handle to force said handle into an oscillatable position for idling its respective motor when its corresponding operating lever is pivotally moved in a man.- ner to operate its corresponding reversing gear.
4. In a boat, an internal combustion engine; a throttle mounted on said engine; propelling mechanism for said boat connected to said'engine; areversing gear connected between said engine and said propelling mechanism; an operating arm connected to said'reversing gear; a stationarily-mounted bracket; a lever pivotally mounted on said bracket; a servo-motor between said reversing gear and said lever; a draw .bar having its one end connected to one end of said pivoted lever and its other-end connected to said servo-motor; an oscillatable handle connected to the other end of said pivoted lever; a 'bell crank connected to said pivoted lever and adapted to-be operated within a plane including the axis of the bracket about which said lever pivots'andjsaid plane being at substantially right angles to said lever; and means connecting said bell crank with said handle and said throttle,
whereby the oscillation of said handle operates said bell crank and said throttle independently of the movement of said lever about the axis of its :pivotal mounting on said bracket.
5. In a boat, an' internal-combustion engine; a
throttle mounted on said engine; propelling mechanism for said boat connected to said engine; a reversing gear connected between said engine and said propelling mechanism; an operating arm connected to said reversing gear; a stationarily-mounted bracket; a lever pivotally mounted on said bracket; a servo-motor between said reversing gear and said lever; a draw bar having its one end connected to one'end of said pivoted lever and its other end connected to said servo-motor; an oscillatable handle connectedto the other end of said pivoted lever; a bell crank connected to said pivoted lever and adapted to be operated within a plane including the axis of the bracket about which said lever pivots and said plane being at substantially right angles to said lever; means connecting-said bell crank with said handle and said throttle, whereby the oscillation of said handle operates said bell crank and said throttle independently of the movement of said lever about the axis of its pivotal mounting. on said bracket; and a plate stationarily mounted relatively to said bracket and including means, for cooperating with said handle for preventing the oscillation of said handle while said pivoted lever is being moved between difierent pivotal positions.
6. In, a power .boat, propelling mechanism; a prime .mover connected to, and adapted to operate said propelling mechanism; a throttle connected to said prime mover; a reversing gear operatively connected to said prime mover and said propelling mechanism for changing the direction of rotation of said propelling mechanism; an operating arm connected to said reversing gear; a stationary bracket; a lever pivotally mounted on said bracket; aservo-motor. including a cylinder mounted inv aligned relation with said arm and end of said pivoted lever; apiston within said cylinder connected to said arm, housing said valve and adapted to seek .a balanced position each time. said valve .is rec'iprocated; valve ports between said piston and valve for providing continuous flow of fluid through said servo-motor when said piston is .in its balanced position; an oscillatable handle connected to the end of said: pivotally-mounted lever opposite that connected to said valve; :and means connecting said :oscillatable handle to said throttle and responsive to the oscillation thereof for controlling .said throttle.
'7. In va boat having a steering wheel, a "port motor and a starboard motor; propelling mechanism connected to each reversing gear; a reversing-gear arm connected to each reversing gear; a throttleattached to .each. motor; means for maneuvering said boat independently 'ofsaid steering wheel comprising a supporting member stationarily mounted in close proximity to :said steering wheel; operating levers pivotally mounted. on said supporting member in spaced relation such that each may be grasped, by onev hand of an operator simultaneously; a servo-motor .for each of said motor includingv a cylinder mounted inaligned relation with the arm and lever .ofeach motor; a reciprocablevalve connected to the-Lone.
end of each of said pivoted levers; a piston within each cylinder connected to, its corresponding reversing-gear arm, housing :its respective valve and adapted to :seek a balanced :position each time its valve is 'reciprocated; valve portsv between each piston and its valve for providing continuous flow of fluid through each .servomotor when its piston is in its :balanced position; a handle connected to the end of each .01 said levers opposite that connected to said valves ina manner so that eachcan be oscillated aboutits own longitudinal axis; and .means connecting said handles to its corresponding throttle, said means being responsive to the oscillation of its handle to control the corresponding throttle.
ERNEST A. CLARK, JR.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record. in the file of this patent:
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|Zitiert von Patent||Eingetragen||Veröffentlichungsdatum||Antragsteller||Titel|
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|US-Klassifikation||440/86, 477/2, 440/87|